WHAT ARE FEMINIZED SEEDS
Cannabis plants that are pollinated naturally with traditional breeding techniques can produce both male or female seeds. These are known as regular seeds and, as in most species, they occur with about an even split between the two sexes. That means Cannabis cultivators starting with regular seeds have about a 50% chance of yielding a female plant from each one. When growing Cannabis respectively hemp for production of flowers or biomass for cannabinoid extraction purposes, we are looking to work with female plants only. As a result, growing hemp from regular seeds isn’t efficient.
There are several techniques used for a reliable production of feminized seeds. One classic method is stressing out a healthy female plant by interrupting its light cycle during flowering. While that works to a certain extent, the most common and controlled method is to treat female plants with a colloidal silver or silver thiosulphate solution (STS). These methods make it possible to control the sex of a plant without any genetic modification. Both substances are a blend of water and fine silver particles, and they work in largely the same fashion. The silver solution impedes the production of ethylene, a hormone involved in the flowering process of the plant. The result is a female plant that produces male flowers with pollen sacs. Since those pollen sacs develop on a plant with only female chromosomes (XX), they will produce only female pollen. When this pollen is applied to another, untreated female plant, the seeds produced by this plant will be around 99.99% female.
CANNABINOIDS & CHEMOTYPES
The content of cannabinoids in dried plant material differs both in quantity and quality.
The cannabinoid content is regulated by several genes and is strongly influenced by the environment. In contrast, the composition of the cannabinoid ratios is inherited. In general, a distinction is made between five chemical phenotypes (chemotypes) of Cannabis Sativa L., which differ with regard to their cannabinoid ratios:
|Chemotype||Cannabinoid content||Cannabinoid ratio|
|I||High THC and low CBD content||THC/CBD up to 40:1|
|II||THC and CBD content approx. equal||THC/CBD ≈ 1:1|
|III||High CBD and low content (incl. fibre hemp)||THC/CBD up to 1:40|
|IV||High CBG and low THC content (until non-detectable)||THC/CBG up to 1:100|
|V||Cannabinoids practically undetectable||–|
Chemotype I is the THC dominant “drug” type, which mostly falls under narcotics laws. Chemotype II, the intermediate type, contains both CBD and THC, in a ratio about equal to each other. Chemotype III includes resinous CBD dominant strains as well as fibre hemp, both having low THC contents. Chemotype IV is CBG dominant and may also contain CBD, while the THC content ranges from low to undetectable. With chemotype V, all cannabinoids are practically undetectable by standard chromatographic analysis methods.
In chemotypes I and II, the THC genes are activated. These varieties, therefore, produce relevant amounts of the psychoactive active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and are therefore subject to applicable narcotics laws.
FENOCAN currently only develops varieties and produces seeds of chemotypes III and IV. This means that our varieties only produce very small amounts of THC and high levels of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids CBD (cannabidiol) and CBG (cannabigerol).
Our resinous hemp varieties below are available as feminized seeds. Please note that cannabinoid content and additional data are to be understood as indications as these values are impacted by various environmental factors, photoperiod, sowing and/or harvest time.